GENERAL EQUIPMENT INC.
8724 Sunset Drive #191 ● Miami FL 33173 · USA
Light Trainer Aircraft AS202 Bravo 18A4
LIGHT TRAINER AIRCRAFT AS202 BRAVO 18A4
1. Introduction AS 202 BRAVO 18A4 Fully IFR:
The AS 202 BRAVO 18A4 is an all-metal, low-wing monoplane with a two to three seat cockpit.
The aircraft is powered by a single 180 hp, horizontally opposed fuel injected four cylinder piston engine driving a constant speed two blade tractor propeller.
The aircraft is easy and pleasant to fly throughout its flight envelope.
The stall is gentle and the spin and recovery characteristics are classic.
The aircraft is designed for all aspects of primary and grading training.
It is capable of taking both civil and military students through their first 40-70 flight training hours.
Secondary roles include aerobatic and sport flying, glider towing, transport, liaison, patrol and surveillance.
The BRAVO is produced in several versions.
The information contained in this description is for the AS 202 BRAVO 18A4 version.
The BRAVO is designed to meet the American Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) civil airworthiness requirements to the Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR), Part 23 including amendments 23-1 through 23 – 14 for Normal, Utility and Aerobatic categories.
The aircraft also meets special conditions of the Federal Office for Civil Aviation of Switzerland (FOCA).
Type certificates are held from FOCA (Switzerland), FAA (USA) and CAA (United Kingdom).
3.1 Design Philosophy
To meet the role requirements the following features were incorporated in the BRAVO design philosophy:
- Two seat side-by-side cockpit with rear third seat
- Bubble canopy and low-wing for best all-around view and max. safety
- Full Aerobatic capability of +6/-3g
- Unlimited inverted flight
- Rugged airframe for long life and low maintenance
- Simple systems with easy access
- Flexible avionic options
3.2 Major Dimensions
- Wing Span 9.780 m (32.087 ft)
- Length 7.500 m (24.606 ft)
- Height 2.810 m ( 9.219 ft)
- Cabin Width 1.000 m ( 3.281 ft)
- Wheel Track 2.250 m (7.4 ft)
- Wheel Base 1.849 m ( 6.066 ft)
- Wing Area 13.861 m2 (149.200sq ft)
- Wing Reference Span 9.500 m (31.168 ft)
- Aspect Ratio 6.5: 1
- Mean Aerodynamic Chord 1.397 m ( 4.583 ft)
- Dihedral (upper wing surface) 5º 43’
- Wing Twist 2º 44’
- Incidence 3º
- Wing Root Section NACA 633618
- Wing Tip Section NACA 632415
3.3 Flight Control Travel
- Aileron up 22º, down 15º
- Elevator up 30º, down 20º
- Elevator Trim Tab up 22º, down 26º
- Rudder left 28º, right 28º
- Rudder Trim Tab left 14º 20’, right 5º
- Landing Flap 0º, 15º, 41º
3.4 Cockpit Layout
To provide an effective and safe training environment FFA ensured the BRAVO cockpit was simple and functional.
A single piece instrument panel in standard “T” layout is used.
Controls and indicators are well positioned for easy reach with duplication as required for safety and training effectiveness.
4. Operating Data
4.1 Ground Operation
The aircraft is designed with a robust structure and heavy-duty landing gear for operation on concrete, grass or unprepared strips.
Non-slip wing walkways on both sides of the cockpit allow easy access.
Normal and emergency egress from the cockpit is simple and easy accomplished because of the sliding/jettisonable canopy.
The aircraft may be moored using the tie down points provided.
4.2.1 Airspeed Limits
- VA, design manoeuvring speed 130 kt (241km/h, 150 mph)
- VC, cruise speed 130 kt (241 km/h, 150 mph)
- VD, maximum dive speed 210 kt (389 km/h, 242 mph)
- VFE, maximum flaps extended speed 95 kt (175 km/h, 109 mph)
- VNE, never exceed speed 175 kt (324 km/h, 201 mph)
Basic Empty Weight is defined as the complete aircraft with engine oil and unusable fuel, but without crew, baggage or fuel.
Basic weight is dependent on the option fitted.
- Basic Empty Weight 750 kg (1’598 lb)
- Maximum Take-Off Weight
- Normal 1’080 kg (2’381 lb)
- Utility 1'080 kg (2'227 lb)
- Aerobatic 1’010 kg (2’315 lb)
. Maximum Landing Weight 1’050 kg (2’315 lb)
- Maximum Baggage Weight 100 kg (221 lb)
4.2.3 Load Factor Limits
- Normal +3.8/-1.9 g
- Utility +4.4/-2.2 g
- Aerobatic +6.0/-3.0 g
4.2.4 Wing Loading
- Normal 77.916 kg/m2 (15.957 lb/sq ft)
- Utility 77.916 kg/m2 (15.957 lb/sq ft)
- Aerobatic 72.866 kg/m2 (14.923 lb/sq ft)
4.2.5 Power Loading
- Normal 6.01 kg/hp (13.23 lb/hp)
- Utility 6.01 kg/hp (13.23 lb/hp)
- Aerobatic 5.62 kg/hp (12.37 lb/hp)
4.2.6 Approved Manoeuvres – Normal and Utility Categories
- Stalls, all configuration
- Lazy eight
- Steep turn
4.2.7 Approved Manoeuvres – Aerobatic Category
- Landing attitude stall - Lazy eight
- High speed stall - Spins with flaps up
- Loop positive or negative - Stall turn
- Clover leaf - Flick roll
- Wing over - Inverted flight
- Inverted push-up - Steep turn
- Derry turn - Immelmann
- Slow roll - Cuban eight
- Vertical roll - Rolling turn
- Climbing half roll - Aileron roll
- Barrel roll - Hesitation roll
4.2.8 Crosswind Component
The maximum demonstrated crosswind component during take-off and landing was 20 kt.
4.2.9 Flight Clearance
Aircraft flight clearance is dependent upon the avionics.
The BRAVO is capable of operating to Visual Flight Rules (VFR) or Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) by day and night.
Flight into known icing conditions is prohibited.
4.2.10 Temperature Limits
The aircraft is designed to operate within an air temperature range from - 20°C to 50°C at sea level without restrictions.
It is possible to start the aircraft using the aircraft battery at -20°C without pre-heating.
At temperatures lower than -20°C adequate pre-heating is required and the use of an external power source is recommended.
4.2.11 Structural Life
The design life of the structure using a scatter factor of 10 is 17’500 hours and 53’000 landings.
5.1 Performance Condition
The following performance details are at Sea Level (SL) in International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) conditions.
Performance is given for the maximum take-off weight of 1’080 kg (2’381 lb) and aerobatic weight 1’010 kg (2’227 lb).
Take-off and landing conditions are for a dry concrete runway with no wind.
- Rate of Climb 4.06 m/s (800 ft/min)
- Time to 6000ft 9 min 30 sec.
- VS (IAS), stall speed, flaps up 60 kt (111km/h, 69 mph)
- VSO (IAS), stall speed, flaps down 49 kt (91 km/h, 57 mph)
- Cruise speed at SL, 75% power 112 kt (207 km/H, 129 mph)
- Servicing ceiling 4.834 m (15.900 ft)
- Take-off ground roll 215 m (705 ft)
- Take-off distance to 15 m (50 ft) 415 m (1’362 ft)
- Landing ground roll 210 m (689 ft)
- Landing distance from 15 m (50 ft) 465 m (1’526 ft)
5.1.2 Performance at Maximum Aerobatic Weight
- Rate of Climb 4.52 m/s (890 ft/min)
- Time to 6000 ft 8 min 18 sec.
- VS (IAS), stall speed, flaps up 58 kt (107 km/h, 66 mph)
- VSO (IAS), stall speed, flaps down 47 kt (87 km/h, 54 mph)
- Cruise speed at SL, 75% power 114 kt (211 km/H, 131 mph)
- VA maximum speed at SL 130 kt (241 km/h, 150 mph)
- Service ceiling 5’290 m (17’400 ft)
- Take-off ground roll 188.5 m (1’190 ft)
- Take-off distance to 15 m (50 ft) 362 m (1’190 ft)
- Landing ground roll 195 m (640 ft)
- Landing distance from 15 m (50 ft) 432 m (1’420 ft)
5.2 Range and Endurance
With 45 minute reserve at 55% power. No other allowance included.
- Range at 75% power 862 km (465 nm)
- Range at 65% power 917 km (494 nm)
- Endurance at 55% power 4hr 58 min
6.1 Air Conditioning
The air conditioning system consists of a separate heating and ventilation system for the supply of warmed and/or outside air to the cockpit.
Air for the heater is drawn in through two intakes on the
top of the engine cowling into a heat exchanger on the exhaust system.
A separate duct supplies warmed air to the rear seat area.
Warmed air for windscreen defrosting is supplied through two ducts to vents at the base of the windscreen.
Cooling air is supplied from two forward facing air intakes ahead of the windscreen and one on either side of the fuselage.
The air from the windscreen vents is ducted to two butterfly valves located on the lower front left and right sides of the instrument panel.
Air from the side vents can be selected by push/pull knobs on the cockpit inner wall.
Additionally, there are two sliding direct vision (DV) windows which, when open, provide additional cooling air.
The cockpit environmental control levers are located on the lower right hand side of the instrument panel.
The communications system for the BRAVO is dependent on the customer’s requirements.
6.3 Electrical Powers
The electrical power supply is a 12 Vdc negative ground system.
Power supply is from a self-exciting 12 Vdc 60 Amp alternator which is mounted on the front of the engine.
The alternator has a built in rectifier, transistorised voltage regulator and over-voltage relay.
Field current is controlled by the voltage regulator to a nominal 14 Volts under all load conditions. Circuit protection against over-voltage is provided by the voltage regulator and over-voltage relay.
The aircraft battery is a 30 Ah / 5 hr / 12 V gel cell maintenance-free mounted beneath the passenger seat.
The battery is connected across the alternator output to stabilise the supply and maintain all essential services if the alternator fails or if the engine is not operating.
The battery capacity is sufficient to start the engine at temperature down to -20°C without pre-heating.
All circuits are protected by flip switches and circuit breakers with thermal release.
Circuit breakers are located on the lower edge of the instrument panel and centre console within easy reach for both pilots.
The aircraft structure is used as the common negative conductor.
Distribution to all services is provided through the circuit breakers incorporating a continuous busbar.
6.4 Equipment and Furnishing
The BRAVO cockpit is fully furnished with wall and floor linings.
Two front seats are provided with an optional passenger seat in the rear of the cockpit.
All cockpit lining material is flame resistant.
Storage pockets for maps and documents are located in the cockpit linings.
The adjustable pilot’s and co-pilot’s seats incorporate a forward folding backrest.
This provides excellent access to the rear of the cockpit for a passenger, baggage loading and unloading, and maintenance.
The seat pan and backrest profile provide for the installation of seat and back type parachutes in lieu of seat cushions.
Each seat is equipped with a quick release five-point restraint harness.
Cockpit access is not hindered by use of standard military flying clothing.
6.5 Fire Protection
A hand operated fire extinguisher containing 1.5 kg BFC (Halon 1211) at a pressure of 12 – 15 bar (176 -220 psi) is stowed in a special compartment in the centre control console.
Discharge time for the fire extinguisher is 6 – 9 sec.
The compartment has a hinged door to secure and protect the extinguisher until required.
6.5.1 Fire Extinguisher for Engine
The fire extinguisher system will be provided as a high pressure spray system.
6.6 Flight Controls
The BRAVO is equipped with dual flight controls.
Primary operation is by cable with push-pull rods and levers connecting the control surfaces.
Elevator trim is electrically actuated by a switch on the control column.
An elevator trim position indicator is installed on the center instrument panel.
Electrically actuated rudder trim may be fitted as an option and, in this case, the trim switch and trim indicator are fitted to the center console.
Flaps are actuated by a single screw jack in the right hand wing root.
The left and right flaps are linked by cables.
Dual flap selectors are installed in the main instrument panel.
Main fuel storage is two flexible rubber tanks installed in each inner wing between ribs five an nine.
The total capacity is 174 litrs (44.94 US gal, 38.11 Imp. Gal) with 160 liters (42.24 US gal, 34.04 Imp. Gal) usable.
Refueling is via over-wing refuelling points, one on each wing.
The fuel selector valve allows the selection of the normal fuel tank intakes or the aerobatic fuel intakes.
The LEFT or RIGHT fuel tank selector positions supply fuel to the engine driven pump via the selector valve and electrical fuel pump.
The AKRO selector positions supply fuel to the engine driven fuel pump via a pendulum fuel pick-up in the tank and through the fuel selector valve and electrical fuel pump.
The AKRO position ensures an uninterrupted fuel supply during Aerobatic flying especially during negative g manoeuvres.
There is no time limitation to inverted flight imposed by the fuel system.
The electrical fuel pump serves as a backup for the engine driven pump during take-off, landing and if the engine pump fails.
Two fuel quantify indicators are installed in the center instrument panel.
The indicators are supplied by signals by two sensors in each main tank.
6.8 Instruments and Control Panel
The BRAVO instruments and control panel is a one piece unit incorporating three instrument boards.
The left hand board contains flight instruments.
The center board contains the engine instruments.
The right hand board contains the radio and navigation instruments and duplicate airspeed turn and slip and altimeter instruments.
The instrument panel also provides location for additional warning indicators, switches and controls.
6.9 Landing Gear
The landing gear is a fixed tricycle type with nose wheel steering.
Nose and main gear assemblies use rubber disc shock absorbing elements.
The main wheels are equipped with hydraulically operated disc brakes.
The hydraulic fluid used is MILH-5606 standard.
Nose wheel steering is by shock absorbing connecting rods to the rudder pedals and maximum travel is 23.5° left and right.
Position lights are mounted on each wing tip and rudder.
The lights are selectable by a rocker switch on the left of the instrument panel.
The switch incorporates an overload circuit breaker.
An optional anti-collision strobe light may be mounted on the rudder and has its own rocker switch in the instrument panel.
A combined landing and taxi light is installed in the front of the engine cowling.
Separate filaments in the sealed beam unit provide either a landing or a taxi light.
Instrument and cabin lighting is by flood lights and post lamps.
Three flood lights are installed on the windscreen frame and have a master switch and rheostat control.
Post lamps are used for center panel and console lighting.
A second rheostat provides light intensity control of equipment with internal lighting.
The structure of the BRAVO is of conventional semi-monocoque construction.
Aluminium is used for most of the structure with stainless steel for the fire-proof bulhead and glass reinforced plastic for the wing tips and front and lower engine cowlings.
Clad aluminium is used for sheet and plate sections.
All parts are corrosion inhibited using alodine treatment and zinc chromate primer before assembly.
External protection is provided by a two component polyurethane paint.
Each wing has a continuous main spar safe-life structure with additional front and rear main spars.
The main landing gear is attached to the main spar and the aircraft jacking points are attached to the front spar.
6.12 Windscreen and Canopy
The windscreen and bubble canopy offer excellent all-around visibility for maximum safety.
The canopy incorporates a jettison system for emergency egress from the cockpit.
The windscreen is single piece and stiffened with a steel frame integral with the fuselage.
The canopy is rearward sliding single piece Perspex bubble with tubular reinforced frame.
The canopy can have two direct-vision windows which can slide open.
The canopy latch is installed in the center of the canopy front frame.
The latch incorporates internal and external operating handles and a key operated lock.
A simple two-action canopy jettison mechanism is located on the floor between the pilot’s seats.
Correct locking of the emergency release is by two visual indicators, one on each side of the cockpit.
The engine is an air cooled horizontally opposed four cylinder fuel injected Lycoming AEIO-360-B1F.
The engine’s maximum power is rated at 180 hp at 2’700 RPM.
Recommended fuel is 91/96 or 100/130 Octane Avgas – lead free Avgas may also be used.
The engine has an internal oil system incorporating an
internal oil pump, distribution system, pressure indicator and oil separator.
The oil filter is of the full-flow canister type.
Oil temperature is automatically controlled with a thermostatic by-pass valve which permits rapid warm-up and continued lubrication if the oil cooler is blocked.
The oil system is fully negative g capable permitting unlimited inverted flight.
6.14 Engine Controls
The engine controls are of conventional lever, push-pull rod type.
Throttle, mixture and propeller controls are located on a center pedestal.
An alternate air control is installed on the instrument panel.
Duplicate throttle and propeller control levers will be fitted to the port cockpit wall.
The throttle control carries a press to transmit button.
The engine drives a Hartzell HC-C2YK-1-BF two-bladed constant sped metal propeller of 1.82 – 1.88 m (71.65 – 74.00 in) diameter.
The BRAVO has a comprehensive documentation package for operation, maintenance and training.
The documentation complies with the requirements of FAR 23 and is based on the General Aviation Manufacturer’s Association (GAMA) specifications.
The documentation package see under 18.104.22.168
The simple and robust design of the BRAVO provides high availability and ease of maintenance.
The ability for continued operation, maintenance and repair under field conditions is an integral part of the design philosophy.
Low maintenance manhours per flight hour provide correspondingly low operation costs.
The basic structure is of simple riveted sheet metal with the minimum of double curvatures.
Parts requiring lubrication are kept to a minimum.
Access panels are provided for ease of access to the structure, equipment and controls.
Two large easily removable/installable engine cowlings provide all-around access throughout the engine compartment.
Airframe maintenance and repair can be performed using standard mechanic’s tools.
The BRAVO requires the minimum ground support equipment (GSE), and needs no special test equipment.
Special to type tools are not required.
The BRAVO design permits high availability and utilisation and utilisation rates of up to 800 flight hours per year have been achieved.
8.3 Recommended Maintenance Programme
- 50 hours inspection (selected items)
- 100 hours inspection (selected items)
- Engine TBO is 1’600 hours and Propeller TBO is 2’000 hours or in accordance with the manufacturer’s latest bulletin.
Primary Training Aircraft – Technical Specifications
Specification and photos are not contractual and are subject to verification upon inspection
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